Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy is a treatment that uses high-intensity pulses of visible light to improve the appearance of the various skin problems.
The exact cause of acne is not known, but one important factor is an increase in hormones called androgens. These male sex hormones increase in both boys and girls during puberty. Some things that can make acne worse include friction caused by leaning on or rubbing the skin, harsh scrubbing, picking or squeezing blemishes, and emotional stress. Acne is not caused by chocolate or other kinds of foods.
Hyperpigmentation is characterized by a darkening of an area of skin caused by the overproduction of a pigment in the skin known as melanin. It is relatively common and usually harmless, but for cosmetic reasons, it is a nuisance to those who have it.
Hypopigmentation in the skin is defined as the appearance of light colored or white patches on the body as a result of a reduction in melanin production.